The world of wine is broad and complex, and a detail as simple as the choice between the classic cork stopper and a synthetic type can be a difficult decision. What impact does the type of sealing have on the wine, and what is the best option for sealing bottles? At Excellent Cork, as manufacturers of synthetic stoppers, we analyze this issue from both perspectives, taking into account when they are used and for what purpose.
The use of cork in the wine industry
Although cork was already used in ancient Greece to seal amphorae and barrels, the wine bottle with a cork stopper, as we know it today, which boosted the modern wine industry, emerged in France during the Enlightenment in the 18th century.
Characteristics and properties of cork stoppers
Cork is a natural material derived from the bark of the cork oak, making it a renewable resource. It is mainly used for its elasticity and porosity, which favor the maturation of wine in the bottle by allowing oxygenation.
Characteristics of compressed and agglomerated cork stoppers
Compressed and agglomerated cork stoppers are an alternative to natural and synthetic cork stoppers. They are made with particles of natural cork that are compressed or agglomerated under high pressure to form a uniform stopper. They are more economical than natural cork stoppers and have less variability in their performance. Additionally, they are less permeable to air, which can be more beneficial for some wines and less so for others.
Advantages and disadvantages of cork stoppers compared to synthetic ones
Cork stoppers, in addition to being sustainable, provide a controlled permeability that can benefit the aging of wine</
. However, their performance can be variable and there is a risk of “cork taint”. This is one of the main reasons why approximately one in twenty bottles may have defects affecting the taste of the wine. In reality, the problem is due to TCA, a foul-smelling substance that can be produced in natural corks when they come into contact with wine.
The rise of synthetic stoppers in the wine industry
The manufacture of synthetic wine stoppers began just over twenty years ago, precisely as a solution to the TCA problem. Since then, the main manufacturers of this type of product have continued to innovate, improving their features.
Benefits and disadvantages of synthetic wine stoppers
Synthetic stoppers do not have the “surprise element” of TCA contamination, which is clearly a great advantage. Additionally, they are cheaper than natural cork and allow for greater customization in terms of colors, shapes, and prints. However, the main disadvantage of synthetic stoppers is that, unlike cork stoppers, most do not allow for oxygenation of the wine inside the sealed bottle, making them less suitable for aged wines. Nevertheless, thanks to industry innovation and development, synthetic stoppers that allow oxygen entry and wine aging are being developed, so this disadvantage is being resolved.
Impact on wine aging and preservation: cork vs. synthetic
The sealing properties of cork and synthetic wine stoppers can influence how wine ages. While cork stoppers allow for controlled oxygen exchange, essential for the maturation of certain wines, synthetics offer a more hermetic closure. Additionally, cork as a natural raw material is a renewable and biodegradable resource, while synthetic stoppers, like plastics, can be fully recyclable but not biodegradable.
Which option is best for my wine: cork or synthetic stopper?
The choice between natural cork and synthetic wine stoppers will depend on the type of wine, the intended aging time, and personal or winery preferences. Both options have their advantages and disadvantages, so it is crucial to consider all these factors when making a decision. Although there are denominations of origin that advocate for natural cork, many DOs
are allowing sealing with synthetic corks.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the best option for sealing wine bottles: natural cork or synthetic stoppers?
There is no “best” option for sealing wine bottles; it is up to the winemakers of each winery to decide which is more appropriate based on the type of wine and the planned storage time.
Advantages and disadvantages of using natural cork in wine stoppers versus synthetic stoppers
Synthetic stoppers are more resistant, more economical, and do not produce “cork taint”, but they do not allow the same degree of wine aging and are not biodegradable, though they are fully recyclable.
Impact of the use of natural cork and synthetic stoppers on the flavor and quality of wine
The use of one type or the other can have an impact on the flavor and quality of the wine. Natural stoppers can add a touch of complexity and elegance to the wine, allowing it to breathe and evolve over time. However, if they are contaminated with TCA, they can produce a cork taint that ruins the wine.
Factors to consider when choosing between cork and synthetic stoppers for wine aging and maturation
Some factors to consider might be: the type of wine, the intended storage time, cost, personal preferences, and environmental impact.
What is the effect of cork and synthetic stoppers on the oxygenation and evolution of wine?
Cork allows a small amount of oxygen that can be beneficial for the evolution of certain wines. Synthetic stoppers provide a more hermetic seal, which may be more appropriate for wines consumed young.
Sustainable alternatives to traditional cork stoppers: synthetic stoppers and other eco-friendly materials
The best synthetic stopper manufacturers are including lines with biodegradable polymers derived from starch or cellulose, that is, plant-based.
Influence of cork and synthetic stoppers on the sensory experience and perception of wine
Perception and sensory experience are highly subjective, and biases or traditional values, as well as the opposite, an attraction to innovation, can influence the consumer and their criteria for selecting between natural cork and synthetic wine stoppers.
Long-term cost comparison between the use of natural cork and synthetic wine stoppers
Synthetic stoppers tend to be more economical than natural cork, especially during periods of cork scarcity and the consequent price increase. The scarcity of cork is due to the reduction of cork oak forests, the cork production cycle, or the increasing demand, not only for the wine industry but also for the construction industry as an insulating material.
Is there any impact on the reputation of wines depending on the type of stopper used: cork or synthetic?
Perception can vary greatly from one person to another, and it cannot be stated that there is a significant impact on the choice of stopper on the wine’s reputation. Ultimately, the choice of stopper type will depend on the balance between quality, profitability, and the producer’s preferences.